A season of work is a PC client which is used to run applications. A server is a computer that is running a NOS.
Most current operating systems include desktop networking capabilities and allows access to multiple users. Typical applications for the workstations under level or desktop may include word processing, spreadsheet and program financial management.
Workstations in high-level, applications can include design Chart or equipment management and more.
A workstation without disk is a kind special computer designed to run on a network . As its name indicates, it does not include monitor , keyboard , memory , starting instructions in ROM and a network card . The software used to establish a connection to the network is loaded from a ROM chip located on NIC .
The systems of the servers must be equipped to allow simultaneous access by multiple users and multitasking, to the extent that customers apply the resources of remote server. These servers are generally configured to provide one or more services network using the family of protocols of the Internet , TCP / IP.
Servers running NOS also used to authenticate users and provide access to shared resources. Identification and authorization are performed by assigning an account name and password to each client . To achieve greater speed of execution, some systems have more than one CPU . Such systems are called multiprocessing systems.
As servers function as central repositories of vital resources for the operation of the client systems must be efficient and robust.
Redundancy is a feature-tolerant systems failures. These systems are designed to survive failures and be repaired without interruption while the systems are active and working.
The application and functions include web servers services using the protocol Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP ), the protocol transfer files ( FTP ) and the system of domain names ( DNS ). The standard email protocol used on the servers of the network protocols include Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), the Protocol Office of e-Version 3 (POP3) and Internet Protocol Message Access Protocol (IMAP) – Used for file sharing protocols include the Network File System from Sun Microsystems (NFS) and Server Message Block of Microsoft (SMB).
A server can also provide the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which automatically assigns the lP addresses to workstations.
The model of client-server computing distributes processing across multiple computers. In a client-server on the client and server share or distribute the processing responsibilities.
Any computer running TCP / IP either a workstation or a server is considered a host computer.
Local host computer where the user is working at that time.
Remote Host: a system that the user has access from another system.
The Internet is also a good example of a customer-provide a distributed processing.
In client-server computing, the storage of the database and its processing performs on the server. The customers should only generate and send the query to servers that require hardware additional software which substantially increase costs .
Introduction to NOS
The OS ( operating system ) of a computer software forms the foundation on which applications and services run on a workstation. Similarly, it allows us to communicate between multiple devices and share resources across the network.
Network servers UNIX , Microsoft Windows NT or Windows Servers include a NOS.
A system capable of operating as a server NOS should be able to allow access to multiple users simultaneously. The main features to consider the selection of a performance NOS are the tools available to management and monitoring, security , scalability and robustness or tolerance to failures.
Must be able to maintain an agile performance under large loads of work , when many clients make requests simultaneously. A performance stable under high demand is an important standard for NOS.
Management and monitoring
The administration interface provides tools for the installation of new services and configuration.
WE must protect a shared resource controls.
Scalability is the ability of a NOS to grow without any degradation in Performance.
Strength / failure tolerance
The measurement of the robot is the ability to provide services efficiently under heavy loads and maintain these services at a failure if the components or processes .
The Windows Servers provides a structure and domain will control access to users and the server resources.
The Windows Servers also includes an encryption system files to give Security to the data on the hard disk . The Windows. NET Server was developed on the core of Windows Server, but was modified to provide a safe and reliable servers web and FTP for business use and compete with the systems operating Linux and UNIX .
UNIX, Sun, HP and LINUX
On UNIX, their various forms, continues to cement its position as the first choice for applications in mission critical , crucial to the functioning of corporations or other organizations . UNIX is also tightly integrated with TCP / IP.
The Solaris operating environment from Sun Microsystems and its OS base, Sun OS, is a implementation of 64-bit UNIX, versatile and high performance. There have been improvements in the creation of Linux, which have changed that image .
Origins of Linux
In 1991, a Finnish student named Linus Torvalds began work on an operating system for computers with Intel 80386 processor. T. Ovalds set out to develop an operating system that was like UNIX in performance but use of a code of software was completely open and free to the user.
Currently there are versions of Linux that can run on almost any 32-bit processor, and even chips lntel 80386, Motorola 68000, Alpha and Power PC.
The following are some of the most popular versions of Linux:
The NOS are designed to provide network processes to customers. It is important to understand that these network processes called “services” in Windows and daemons in UNIX and Linux. The deliberate Denial Attack Service (DoS), the virus of computer and fast internet worms distribution have forced developers to rethink the NOS network services must be enabled automatically.
A network printing service provides system administrators with the necessary tools to manage a large number of print jobs that are routed through the network.
Within a network or corporate home, usually files are shared by using Windows File Sharing or NFS protocol.
FTP services are offered to the public in conjunction with Web services. For example, a user can navigate a website, read and update software on a web page and then download the update via FTP.
Although customers must register with the FTP server, many FTP servers are configured to allow anonymous access. FTP is a session oriented protocol.
Websites are sets of pages stored on a web server or group of servers. Customers seeking to establish TCP sessions with web hosting servers.
As the number of users grows, the base of 1C swells with an engine that is used as a server that can not handle the load, the guide breaks and mosques, the performance drops. the rate of customer service drops, so IT affirms the need to purchase a new server. During the time disaster recovery process the company bears the loss – perhaps sooner or later face the same problem. So we are faced with a dilemma – to buy a server or a desktop computer, but is more powerful.
In this case, there is a quite expected question: “Why buy a server costing over 100 thousand, when you can do with a powerful system block up to 30 thousand?”
Most likely, such savings boomerang. Server equipment is expensive, but it provides more stability, reliability, and performance. Consider these points in more detail in comparison of the server and a normal PC.
Power system: The server is designed to operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. For this purpose it is equipped with redundant power supply (ideally connected to the other phase, and even better with two different blocks of uninterrupted power supply for each block) – thus, the load is distributed evenly on two power supplies, and that is not unimportant, the server is much more likely to “survive” in the event of a power outage and / or death of one of the blocks of uninterrupted power supply. Power supply power – 750 watts, which enables the power supply units to reliably withstand the internal components.
Conventional system units have only one power supply, power usually does not exceed more than 500 watts. Thus, on a standard PC, we can observe incorrect work of some devices because of the banal lack of tension from time to time.
Cooling system: We all know that electronics do not like heat – from overheating the computer reboots, freezes, and behaves poorly.
Lowering the temperature inside the computer, around the electronic components is achieved by air circulation. Therefore, the server chassis in most cases more, in addition, have the fans not only on the CPU and power supply, but also additional case fans, and separate fans for hard disk drives.
In a typical system block hull fans miss half of the cases, and the fans for hard disk drives exist only in cases where there is an specially established and experienced system administrator. It is also worth noting that the installation of additional fans is an additional burden on an already not very powerful PSU. As a result, saving your computer from overheating, we are taking him to death from lack of stress on the power supply.
Disk Subsystem: Server motherboard has an integrated RAID-controllers that allow you to “merge” several physical disks into a single volume, thus increasing performance (increases the speed of reading and writing), as well as fault tolerance (recorded data is automatically duplicated on other drives that can store data in case of death of one of them).
Servers make it possible to “hot swap” – replace the hard drive on the fly, without shutting down and stop working, which is very important in case of emergency situations – three minutes, and users do not notice anything, as things continue to work quietly.
Motherboards conventional PCs and higher price ranges also have built-in RAID-controllers, but in most cases, these controllers are less functional, and allow you to configure, in most cases only two hard drives, much less four. Of course, you can install extra RAID-controller, while again increasing the burden on the power unit and creating additional obstacles for air circulation.
Conventional system blocks does not allow “hot swapping”, hence the death of one disk in a RAID-array, of course, will not lead to data loss, but will stop the server (and all its users) for a long time – to set the new drive and rebuild RAID- array.
Case: Server chassis, in most cases, move normally and allows air to cool (about furrows additional fans), and secondly, allows to establish a greater number of hard drives. It’s also worth noting steel, which is used for the body – its thickness is 1 mm or more. That, firstly, greatly reduces the noise level coming from the server, and secondly, to avoid damage to the hand during assembly and maintenance of the server, Third, increases the mechanical strength and reliability.
Consider building a conventional computer: a small volume and difficulty of air circulation, lack of the possibility of installing a large number of hard drives, thin and sharp steel cabinet, which on the one hand is easily damaged, and on the other hand it is easy to get hurt. Increased noise.
Expandability: Thinking about the future, the chief predicts growth of the company and business. To meet the needs of growing with the company and business, the system administrator should think about a planned increase in capacity and performance of the server. In most cases, the motherboard contains a few extra sockets to install processors. Your motherboard has 32 slots for memory modules. Server chassis contains many bays of dozens of additional hard drives.
What can we say about the usual computer?
The maximum you can buy a dual-processor motherboard. More – this is a server motherboard, but it is not included in a standard PC. Number of slots for RAM on a conventional motherboard does not exceed four. The number of bays for hard drives does not exceed more than six. Thus it is not difficult to calculate the maximum available size of operating memory, and disk and how much it will meet the business needs of the organization.
It should be remembered that the with maximum number of hard drives, we get problems with the load on the power supply, and problems in usual case will be no room for air circulation between the discs, and they will be very warm.
Period of support: Do not consider a manufacturer’s customer support, and a real opportunity to physically repair and / or upgrade your computer.
The server that period is about five years, ie Today there is a real opportunity to buy parts for the server, which was bought five years ago. Just a modern server bought today will be able to purchase additional memory, hard drive, processor, etc. Five years later, these components will be on sale and available to order.
For a typical computer term of support and a complete change of technology and components is only three years. I.e. if after three years there will be a need to upgrade the server and increase its productivity, it will likely have to buy a new system unit, as an integrated system will not be on sale, they are considered outdated.
Economic impact: Given the above, we assume that after the purchase of the server overall performance is increased by 10%, i.e. copy files 10% faster than the indexed base, etc. We arrive at the fact that the performance of each individual employee working with the server, has grown by 10%. Accountant, storekeeper, manager – each received almost an additional hour of work a day! Plus, this significantly reduced downtime in the event of an accident and the number of these accidents. And how many hours a month? And how much per year? And in Rupees? – Competent manager can easily calculate that a business owner can make use of the server.
Thus, we conclude that if you decide to buy a dedicated server web hosting, it will not cost but an investment in a stable and reliable operation of the business.
Cloud computing is the buzzword of the moment, but what does it mean? This is really ready for prime time, or you want to stay with VPS?
First, some definitions:
Head in the Clouds?
In a sense, cloud computing, is a grid computing that borrow the overall computing resources for application processing rather than local servers or user devices. This is an updated model of a supercomputer for the IT company of the people, promising trillions of calculations per second for financial services, personal data and a huge, immerse gaming network.
Cloud computing brings together a group of servers using (mostly) low-cost, consumer-level components of a PC on the network, the distribution of data crunching cleaning. Virtualization techniques can maximize Cloud computing power. Standards for the PC and network connectivity, and software do all the work. Now, cloud computing has become the hot thing, and its potential for accessing and sharing of computing power as a virtual resource, security and a scalable way, makes it attractive for large corporate data centers. It’s all pretty vague and uncertain, though, and early adopters need courage, as well as expanding budgets.
VPS Hosting, Tried and Trusted
VPS means virtual private servers, which is created on a special physical server in a data center. VPS essentially stand-alone server hardware sharing a single physical server, something like a dedicated server with its own memory, disk space, as well as the IP address. Since you can manually restart the VPS and operate as a separate server that can run your own applications. It is similar to dedicated servers, but closer to the cost of hosting plan, VPS servers can process requests for secondary business sites easily.
Each VPS account on the server, have its own partition, which allows them access to their own roots and bandwidth. This improves performance and allows users to run their own applications. VPS works like a dedicated server, in many respects, except when it comes to paying for them, since they are much cheaper in comparison.
Cloud computing is definitely the hot thing and there are couple of cloud hosting providers in India. Nevertheless, many experts believe that the term is a multitasking buzzword used to describe the confusing array of different technologies. Cloud computing term is used to refer to utility computing, network computing, software as a service “model, Internet applications, remote processing, autonomic computing and peer-to-peer computing.
There are people who believe that the term cloud computing is another key word used to describe too much technology, which makes it confusing for many. Cloud computing term is used to describe grid computing, utility computing, software as a service, Internet-based applications, autonomic computing, peer-to-peer computers and remote processing. When most people use the term, they can have one of these ideas in mind, but the listener can think of something else.
User forums filled with people who have a number of high-traffic Web sites with 10000 hits per day range, but if there is not high traffic, it is sufficient demand to justify the preparation of solid, capable VPS or Dedicated server. Some of these claims involved a huge cost savings from the cloud, but they show that there are usually standard monthly payments over the utility billing. It is obvious that at present the regular forms of hosting is cheaper to scale to enter a formula, then the lines will intersect and cloud computing will be a less expensive alternative.
The problem, of course is that, there is a lack of awareness. Some clouds providers have developed online price estimate tools like cost calculators, which will be considered with estimated bandwidth and storage needs that can crank out a monthly bill. That’s all you can do to get a cost comparison at the moment.
Cloud Hosting and VPS Hosting, both are Best…
Only factor matters is the Requirement….